Community Based Ecotourism as a Tool for Biodiversity Conservation in Wunania - Kosoye Natural Attraction Site, Ethiopia

Community Based Ecotourism as a Tool for Biodiversity Conservation in Wunania - Kosoye Natural Attraction Site, Ethiopia

Endalkachew Teshome1, Mulugeta Astery2

Abstract

Tourism can play a vital role in protecting the environment, conserving biodiversity and maintaining sustainable development, and it has power to enhance the environment, to provide fund for conservation, to preserve culture and history, to set sustainable use limits, to protect wildlife and to add value to biodiversity. Cross sectional study was used to describe the existing situations and events. Additionally, both quantitative and qualitative methods were employed. A total of 200 community members were chosen to fill the questionnaire, and interview was undertaken with key informants who were community representatives, experts/professionals and local guide. In this study, stratified simple random sampling and purposive sampling techniques were employed. Data was analyzed by using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). The local community’s awareness level on biodiversity conservation and the economic significance of ecotourism in Wunania-Kosoye natural attraction site was very high. However, there was loss of biodiversity in the last decades due to deforestation, uncontrolled grazing and land degradation. On the level of awareness about biodiversity conservation and community based ecotourism (CBET), there is statistically significant difference among respondents of the three kebeles (f value for Chira Ambezo and Kosoye Yeambaras (.001),for Chira Ambezo and Gunda Chugie (.000) and for Kosoye Yeambaras and Gunda Chugi (.018)) = P < 0.05). This research finding suggested that CBET is becoming preferable when it is compared with other alternative approaches for conserving biodiversity in Wunania-Kosoye natural attraction site.

 

 

 

Key word: Community based ecotourism, Wunania-Kosoye

 

 

  1. Introduction

Tourism can play a vital role in protecting the environment, conserving biodiversity and maintaining sustainable development (UNEP and WTO, 2005), and it has power to enhance the environment, to provide fund for conservation, to preserve culture and history, to set sustainable use limits and to protect wildlife and add value to biodiversity (Mcintosh, Goeldner and Richie, 1995). Ecotourism to biodiversity hotspots are estimated to be growing at 100% a year, and considered as one of the most rapidly expanding sectors of the travel industry (Environmental Grant makers Association, 2008), and it is part of a growing niche market of the tourism industry. Its contribution to the world economy has grown fast in recent years (The United Nations, 2001). The term Community Based Tourism (CBT) was emerged in the mid-1990s. CBT is generally small scale and involves interactions between visitor and host community, particularly suited to rural and regional areas. CBT is commonly understood to be managed and owned by the community, for the community,& is committed to make a low impact on the environment and local culture, while helping to generate future employment for local people (Timothy, 2002).

CBET serves as a means to conserve both cultural & natural resources of the a particular tourist attraction through diversifies  diversify economic activities (Godfrey & Clarke, 2000); as poverty reduction (Conservation International, 2003), as finance infrastructure and social amenities improvement (Denman, 2001); as a source of employment opportunities for local communities (Tisdell, 2003, Aref, 2010) as a means for creating educational opportunities (Bushell & Eagles, 2007) and helps tourism to be viewed as one of the community development tool (Allen, Long & Perdue, 1993). It is managed and owned by the community with the purpose of enabling visitors to increase their awareness and to learn about the community and the local people’s ways of life (Potjana, 2003; Coward, 2001).

Studies show that local community’s level of awareness, knowledge, perception, participation and attitude are vital factor for successful community based ecotourism in particular destination (Teye, Sanmoz & Sirakaya, 2002; Ap & John, 1998; Tosun, 2006; Wood, 2002). Increasing awareness of tourism interaction with the environment should lead tourist destinations and tourism businesses to behave environmentally responsibly (Greg and Derek, 2000). As CBET is exercised in a given area, local community members can organize themselves and engage in the production and delivery of tourism services such as cultural show, community lodge, and local tour guiding, and producing and selling of handicrafts (Strasdas & Zeppenfeld, 2008). However, the degree of engagement of local people in such type of activities depends on their level of awareness (Fenta and Mekonnen, 2009). According to Teye, Sanmoz & Sirakaya, (2002) miscommunications and wrong perceptions of local community can be the major barriers of regional tourism development projects. They argue that local community support is very much important for the successful completion of community based ecotourism project.

Although Wunania-Kosoye Natural attraction has a huge potential for the development and implementation of ecotourism, the contributions of tourism sectors are very low. At the result, the major sources of community livelihood are only subjected to subsistent agriculture with very traditional farming practices (Negash et.al, 2010). Studies show that even though only 20% of Wunania-Kosoye area is suitable for cultivation, more than 47% of the total area was cultivated (NGZCTD and ANRS-CTPDB, 2010). This shows that about 27 % of the cultivated lands are either steep slope or degraded lands. To improve the livelihood of the community and protect the natural attraction site from further degradation, the most preferable economic activity of the area is CBET. Introducing and developing community based ecotourism innatural attraction site like Wunania–Kosoye has its own advantages in maintaining biodiversity and promoting sustainable development, because ecotourism is a travel that concerns itself with the flora, fauna, geology, and ecosystems of an area, as well as the people who live in and nearby by natural attraction (Fennel, 2002).

  1. Objective

The objective of this research was to describe local community’s awareness and perception about the relation of CBET and biodiversity conservation.

3.      Materials and Methods

Sample and Sampling Techniques

Both probability and non-probability sampling methods were employed. Stratified, simple random and purposive samplings are used. These techniques are considered appropriate for the complex situations of Wunania-Kosoye Natural Attraction site.

Sampling Techniques for Quantitative Method

In order to select respondents those who fill the questionnaire, stratified and simple random sampling techniques were used. There are three Kebeles in the study area (Chira Ambezo in Lay Armachiho woreda, and Kosoye Yembaras and Gunda Chugi in Wegera woreda). Each kebele is dominated by one of the three agro-climatic zones. To get a balanced representation of the population from each agro-climatic zone, all Kebeles are taken as the focus of this study. The target population of the study area is 4369 head of households (Chira Ambezo 1567, Kosoye Yeambaras 1695, and Gunda Chugi 1107. The sample size for quantitative data is determined by using Cochran’s formula as indicated on Bartlett Kotrlik and Higgins (2001).

This study uses the following formula to calculate sample size:

n = N/ 1+N (e) ²

The following step is used to determine sample size derived from the above formula to collect qualitative data using questionnaire:                                                                                           

 n = N/ 1+N (e) ²                                                                                                                           

Where:                                                                                                                                         

n   designates the sample size the research uses;                                                                    

N designates total number of households in all sample Kebeles assuming that all households are affected by the issue;                                                                                                           

e   designates maximum variability or margin of error 5% (.05);                                    

  1. Designates the probability of the event occurring.                                                       

Therefore:                                                                                                                                  

n = N/ 1+N (e) ²                                                                                                                         

n =4369/ 1 + 4369 (.05) ²                                                                                                           

n =4369/ 1 + 4369 (.0025)                                                                                                       

n =4369/ 1 + 10.9225     

n = 4369/ 11.9225         

8  n = 366             

Since the source population is less than ten thousand correction formula was employed (n = no/1+ no / N). Where, no: initial sample, N: source population, n:  required corrected sample.

n = 366/1+366/4369 = 338. The required sample size chosen to fill the questionnaire was 338 household heads residing in all Kebeles. However, some factors like rugged terrain, inaccessibility and scattered settlement forced the researcher to take only 200 samples. Hence, 71, 78 and 51respondants were proportionally selected to fill the questionnaire from Chira Ambezo, Kosoye Yeambaras, and Gunda- chugi respectively. Of the total sample, 154 were men and 46 of them were women.

Sampling Techniques for Qualitative Method

For the qualitative method, non-probability sampling is chosen since it is useful to identify the relevance to the focus of study rather than representativeness of the population (Knerr, 2008). Purposive sampling technique was working well in selecting knowledgeable experts/professionals, stakeholders and the local community leaders and elders as key informants. Moreover, key informant interview was undertaken with purposely selected six community representatives/community leaders and elders. These representatives of the local community are residents of the villages, and the first group of the key informants was interviewed to evaluate the perception, level of local community participation and knowledge of CBET. Based on the population size, the resources available to cover the three kebeles and the time spent to interview one villager determined the sample of two community representatives from each Kebele.

All the three groups of key informants are selected purposely with respect to their roles in the land administration process, resource management activities, conservation works, ecotourism development activities and their knowledge and experience on the subject of the study. The selection of sample size for the interview stresses the quality of the respondents and their potential know-how to answer the questions and to provide rich and relevant information for the analysis and interpretation of the data.

Data Analysis

The qualitative data were analyzed based on the procedures of Bith (2011).  The interviews were transcribed (for audio recorded conversations) and summarized (for non-recorded conversations) into word processing files for analysis.  Key contents and concepts were searched for within each file and in the secondary data documents. These contents and concepts were then categorized into three main themes i.e. 

  • Local Community’s level of awareness: about the relation of biodiversity conservation and community based ecotourism,
  • Community participation: Association between community’s awareness on biodiversity and their level of participation on community based ecotourism development
  • Economic effects of Wunania Kossoye Community-Based Ecotourism: the economic benefits compared to the alternative income

The quantitative information was analyzed first using descriptive and then inferential techniques of data analysis. In the data analysis process, the completed questionnaire was coded and the data was analyzed by using the statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) Version 16.0, and was interpreted to show detailed picture of the existing situation on the study area. In descriptive analysis, the frequency distribution, percentage and average mean were used. From inferential statistics Chi-square test was run to see the association between awareness of community on bio-diversities and their knowledge on the significance of community participation. Independent t-test was used to compare awareness level between male and female respondents and one way ANOVA was used to see the difference in awareness level among respondents of the three kebeles and to analyze the difference in concentration of natural attraction resources among the three kebeles.

4.      Results and Discussion

4.1. Local Community’s awareness about the relation of biodiversity conservation & CBET

The local community’s awareness level on biodiversity conservation and the economic significance of ecotourism in Wunania-Kosoye natural attraction site was evaluated. The result, as can be seen from table 1, showed that 91.4% of the respondents were well aware about the relation of biodiversity conservation and CBET. However, very few respondents (3.8%) did not know the value of bio-diversities in their kebele. Table 1 also indicated that the majority of the respondents (78.5%) have adequate knowledge about biodiversity conservation in their kebele, and 11.8% of them were unable to decide to respond either they have adequate knowledge or not. While only 9.7% of the respondents do not have adequate knowledge about biodiversity conservation in their kebele. Based on these findings, it is possible to understand that lack of awareness is not the main problem of biodiversity conservation in this site. Furthermore, the cumulative average agreement level of respondentsin putting all the awareness on biodiversity conservation given from government officials and professionals in to practice is about 4.12 mean averages, which verifies their agreement.

The data collected on the interdependency between biodiversity and ecotourism shown that 76.9% of the respondents recognize the great dependency of ecotourism on bio-diversities of the area.Some respondents (15.6%) were not sure whether ecotourism is dependent on bio-diversities of the site or not, and only 7.5% of them do not recognize its relation with bio-diversities.

Table 1 Local community’s awareness about biodiversity conservation and significance of CBET at Wunania-Kosoye, North Gondar

Level of awareness on biodiversity conservation and CBET

Relative Agreement

Mean

Average

SDA

DA

N

A

SA

F

%

F

%

F

%

F

%

F

%

Biodiversities

3

1.6

4

2.2

9

4.8

99

53.2

71

38.2

4.24

Biodiversity conservation

4

2.2

14

7.5

22

11.8

91

48.9

55

29.6

3.96

Implementation of biodiversity conservation based on  professionals advices

3

1.6

7

3.8

12

6.5

107

57.5

57

30.6

4.12

Ecotourism depend on biodiversities.

9

4.8

5

2.7

29

15.6

97

52.2

46

24.7

3.89

Economic benefits of ecotourism

1

5

5

2.7

4

2.2

94

50.5

82

44.1

4.35

CBET promotes conservation of natural resources

4

2.2

2

1.1

8

4.3

95

1.1

77

41.4

4.28

CBET has more sustainable economic benefit than other livelihood alternative

1

.5

5

2.7

11

5.9

110

59.1

59

31.7

4.19

Importance of local community participation

5

2.7

1

.5

0

.0

88

47.3

92

49.5

4.40

Total (local community awareness about biodiversity conservation and   significance of CBET)

4.801

Source: Primary data of field survey 2012

The scale used was Likert scale, SDA=Strongly Disagree, DA=Disagree, N= Neutral, A=Agree, SA= Strongly Agree

Moreover, the triangulated qualitative information/data obtained from the interviews with key informants and field observation on the problems of biodiversity conservation in Wunania- Kosoye area also revealed that low levels of community’s awareness was the major problem for the last five years, but after the introduction of CBET in the site, the problem is restricted to certain individuals who are directly benefited from the uncontrolled use of natural resources. Besides, these key informants observed the loss of biodiversity in the last decades due to deforestation of natural vegetation for cultivation, constructions, furniture, fuel-wood, and charcoal; uncontrolled grazing; seasonal migration of cattle and land-sliding especially around Zagol Amba and Wunania areas. According to the key informants, migration of wildlife due to deforestation and wildfire and eucalyptus tree plantation were another challenges in the study area.

Information obtained from the key informants on measures taken so far to solve biodiversity conservation problems reflected that different physical and biological conservation works have been done in some selected watershed areas, but the measures taken were not sufficient to mitigate the problems. According to the key informants, variety of methods have been used to protect the biodiversity of the study area. Among these, the most frequently mentioned  methods were promoting integrated watershed management, introducing ecotourism and CBET as alternative livelihood activity to reduce depending on agriculture only, developing bylaws to protect wildlife from illegal hunters, planting fast growing indigenous plants, properly implementing rural land use guidelines, restricting seasonal migration of cattle,  encouraging zero grazing, strengthening the physical conservation works with biological conservations, and preserving highly fragile areas from farming cultivation. 

During the interview conducted with the local community leaders, elders, local guides and experts/professionals about local community participation in biodiversity conservation, the respondents assured that local community participation in biodiversity conservation will be active since there is an alternative source of income created in the study area

4.2. Community’s awareness on economic benefit of CBET

According to table 1, a significantly high number of respondents (94.6 %) believe that ecotourism can provide economic benefits to the local community. However,  few respondents (7.7%) do not believe in economic benefits of ecotourism, and the rest 2.2% do not decide to tell whether it has benefit or not.

Form the total  respondents, 92.5% of them believe that CBET has huge contribution in  promoting conservation of natural resources in Wunania- Kosoye area, only 3.3% did not agree with the significance of CBET for conservation and the remaining, 4.3% of the  respondents were unable to decide whether CBET is significant for biodiversity conservation or not.

Table 1 revealed that 90.8% of the survey respondents preferred CBET than other means of livelihood  alternatives to maintain sustainable economic benefit, 5.9% of the respondents were neutral and only 3.2% respondents did not prefer CBET than other means of livelihood alternative, and the cumulative mean average agreement level of the local community’s participation is 4.40, this shows that the local community were well aware about the significance of local community’s participation in any affairs of their kebele ecotourism development. The result of the key informant interview demonstrated that there is a higher rate of significance level for CBET than other alternative methods of biodiversity conservation. Moreover, key informants suggested that environmentally well aware eco-tourists are interested in visiting areas which have to visit areas having rich biodiversity and natural beauty. Unlike other economic activities, the degree of economic benefit obtained from CBET depends on the degree to which conservation of biodiversity is undertaken and the extent to which natural beauty is maintained. Furthermore, this economic sector is not over consuming or depleting the natural resource of the area. Therefore, CBET can be taken as a more preferable livelihood alternative than other economic activities to maintain biodiversity and sustainable development of this site.

Table 2 Association between community’s awareness on biodiversity and their participation on its conservation 

Awareness on Bio-diversities* Knowledge for community participation

 

 

Statistical model

Value

df

Asymp. Sig.(2-sided)

Monte Carlo Sig. (2-sided)

Monte Carlo Sig. (1-sided)

Sig.

95%Confide
nce Interval

95%Confide
nce Interval

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

Pearson Chi-Square

18.278

12

.107

.140

.133

.147

 

 

Likelihood Ratio

19.259

12

.082

.028

.025

.031

 

 

Fisher's Exact Test

25.089

 

 

.016

.014

.019

 

 

Linear-by-Linear Association

.700

1

.403

.429

.419

.438

.207

.224

N of Valid Cases

186

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: Primary data of field survey 2012

There is no significant difference (Pearson Chi-Square =.140 = p > .05)between awareness on biodiversity and knowledge about the importance of community participation. This mean there is an association between awareness of the respondents about bio-diversities of the kebele and the respondents’ knowledge about the significance of community participation. It implies that effective implementation of biodiversity conservation in the site can be achieved through increasing community participation in natural resources conservation activities.

Table 3 Differences in level of awareness about biodiversity conservation and significance of CBET between male and female respondents

Group Statistics

Level of awareness on biodiversity conservation and CBET

Sex

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

Std. Error Mean

male

140

4.1893

.45738

.03866

female

46

4.1522

.56575

.08342

Source: Primary data of field survey 2012

Table 3 reveals that the mean value of male respondents in terms of awareness about biodiversity conservation and significance of CBET is 4.19 which is a slightly greater than the mean value of females (4.15). The reason for this slight difference in mean (0.04) is male respondents have more exposure to participate in different community awareness raising programs than female respondents. However, t-test in table 4, shows that there is no significant difference (t-test = .688 = p > .05) between male and female participants in terms of awareness about biodiversity conservation and importance of CBET.

 Table 4: Differences in level of awareness about biodiversity conservation and significance of CBET between male and female respondents

 

 

 

Independent Samples Test

Levene's Test for Equality of Variances

t-test for Equality of Means

F

Sig.

t

df

Sig. (2-tailed)

Mean

Std. Error

95% CI Difference

Lower

Upper

Level of awareness on biodiversity conservation and CBET

Equal variances assumed

5.473

.020

.449

184

.654

.0371

.0826

-.1259

.2001

Equal variances not assumed

 

 

.404

65.42

.688

.0371

.0919

-.1465

.2207

Source: Primary data of field survey 2012

Finally, one way ANOVA was used to see whether there is a significant mean difference in awareness level among respondents of the three kebeles or not.

Table 5Difference in awareness level among respondents of the three kebeles

Level of awareness on biodiversity conservation and CBET

N

Mean

Std. Deviation

F

Sig.

Chira  Ambezo

66

4.3977

.36553

14.641

.000

Kosoye Yeambaras

69

4.1449

.47725

Gunda Chugi

51

3.9461

.51675

Total

186

4.1801

.48507

Source: Primary data of field survey 2012

Table 5 reveals that the highest mean value of agreement level of respondents’ awareness on biodiversity conservation and significance of CBET is observed in Chira Ambezo (4.3977), followed by Kosoye Yeambaras (4.1449), while the least is Gunda Chugi (3.9461). This may be due to the fact that Gunda Chugie is found in remoter area than the other two kebeles.

Table 6 multiple comparisons of differences in awareness level among respondents of the three kebeles

Level of local community’s awareness on biodiversity and its conservation LSD

(I) Residence of Respondent

(J) Residence of Respondent

Mean difference  (I-J)

Std. Error

Sig.

95% Confidence Interval

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

Chirambezo

Kosoye Yeambaras

.25280

.07797

.001

.0990

.4066

Gunda Chugi

.45165

.08442

.000

.2851

.6182

Kosoye Yeambaras

Gunda Chugi

.19885

.08362

.018

.0339

.3638

Source: Primary data of field survey 2012

There is statistically significant difference among respondents of the three kebeles (f value for Chira Ambezo and Kosoye Yeambaras (.001),for Chira Ambezo and Gunda Chugi (.000) and for Kosoye Yeambaras and Gunda Chugi (.018) ) = P < .05. This is because of the fact that the local communities residing in Chirambezo and Kosoye Ambaras kebeles have got opportunities to participate in different community awareness raising programs. Especially Chirambezo community started to engage in CBET activities while community of Gunda Chugie is the least favored due to the inaccessibility of the kebele.

  1. Conclusion

Local communities’ awareness level on biodiversity conservation and economic significance of ecotourism in Wunania-Kosoye natural attraction site was relatively high. While, there was loss of biodiversity in the last decades due to deforestation, uncontrolled grazing, and land degradation. A range of methods have been used to protect biodiversity of the study area. Among these, the most frequently mentioned ones are promoting integrated watershed management, introducing ecotourism in the area and CBET as alternative livelihood activity, developing bylaws to protect wildlife from illegal hunters and plantation of fast growing indigenous plants, properly implementing rural land use guidelines, and strengthening the physical conservation works with biological conservations. On the level of awareness about biodiversity conservation and CBET, there is statistically significant difference among respondents of the three kebeles (f value for Chira Ambezo and Kosoye Yeambaras (.001),for Chirambezo and Gunda Chugi (.000) and for Kosoye Yeambaras and Gunda Chugi (.018)) = P < 0.05). This research finding suggested that CBET is becoming preferable than other alternative approaches for conserving biodiversity in Wunania-Kosoye natural attraction site.

  1. Recommendation
  • To assure the effective biodiversity conservation at Wunania-Kosoye natural attraction site, active community participation in natural resources conservation activities shall be implemented
  • To enhance the community’s’ awareness towards the value of community based ecotourism development to biodiversity conservation, awareness creation program shall be conducted into all kebels’ in Wunania-Kosoye natural attraction site.
  • In order to conserve biodiversity at Wunania-Kosoye natural attraction site Amhara Regional State Culture and Tourism Bureau shall due special attention for community based ecotourism development.
 

 

References:

Allen, A., Hafer, A., Long, T., & Perdue, A. (1993). Rural residents' attitudes toward recreation and tourism development. Journal of Travel Research, 31, 27-35.

ANRS-CTPDB (2009). Sustainable tourism network master plan for tourist destination and potential sites of North Gondar Administration Zone. (Zero Draft).

Ap, J. John C. (1998). Developing and testing a tourism impact scale. Journal of Tourism Research 37(2): 120–130. Retived from: http://jtr.sagepub.com/content/37/2/120.abstract

Aref, F, Gill, S. & Aref, F., (2010).Tourism Development in Local Communities: As a Community Development Approach.  Journal of American Science; 6(2).

Aref, F., 2010. Residents’ Attitudes towards Tourism Impacts: A Case Study of Shiraz, Iran. Tourism Analysis, 15(2), 253-261.

Bartlett, J. E., Kotrlik, J. W., & Higgins C., (2001). Organizational research: Determining appropriate sample size for survey research.Information technology, Learning, and Performance Journal, 19(1) 43-50.

Bith B. (2011). Community-based ecotourism and empowerment of indigenous people: the Case of Yeak Laom community development, Cambodia: A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of master of tourism management. Retrieved on 31/01/2014 from research archive.

Bushell, R. and Eagles, P.F. (2007). Tourism and Protected Areas: Benefits Beyond Boundaries.Cambridge, MA: CAB International.

Conservation International (2003). Sustainable tourism program overview. Retrieved on 24/03/2014 from http://www evroparl.ev.int/stoa/publi/pdf/stoa103_en.pdf.

Coward, W. (2001) "The Kulu Valleys in Motion," Himalaya, the Journal of the Association for Nepal and Himalayan Studies: Vol. 21: No. 2, Article 5.

Denman R. (2001). Guidelines for community-based ecotourism development.WWF International July 2001. Retrieved on 25/03/2014 from http://www.panda.org.

Environmental Grantmakers Association, (2008). Ecotourism as a conservation Strategy for funders, A background briefing, 

Fennell D. A. (2002). Ecotourism: An introduction. London and New York: Rout ledge Taylor & Francis E group. 

Fenta Mandefro and Mekonnen Gebre Egziabher (2009). A baseline study to identify potential for sustainable pro-poor tourism development in Amhara National Regional State. (Unpublished). 

Greg R. and Derek H. (2000) Tourism and Sustainable Community Development, Routledge, ISBN: 0-415-22462-4.

Kevin, M. (2010). The sustainability of community based ecotourism in Southern Africa. Retrieved on 11/02/2012 from http://eprints.port.ac.uk/.

Knerr, B. (2008). Ecotourism as a tool for sustainable rural community development and natural resource management.Retrieved on 31/01/2012 from www.uni-kassel.de/upress/.../978-3-89958-465-3.volltext.frei.pdf

McIntosh, R. W., Goeldner, C. R., and Ritchie, J. R. (1995). Tourism principles, Practices, philosophies, (7th ed.), New York: Wiley.

Negash Atnafu, Gedefaw Amsalu, Shimelis Aklilu andYohannes Mesgan (2010). Detail study of tourism potential of Kosoye, Gorgora & their vicinity. (Unpublished). 

NGZCTD and ANRS-CTPDB (2010). Detailed bio-physical, socio-economic and tourism development potential survey of Wonaniya and its vicinities (unpublished).

Potjana, S. 2003. Community Based Tourism Handbook. Responsible Ecological Social Tour - REST, Thailand.

Strasdas, W. & Zeppenfeld R. (2008). Tourism in developing countries: International Student Conference July 7-8, 2008 in Eberswalde, Germany Conference Reader. Retrieved on 31/01/2014 from www.hnee.de/app/so.asp?o=/_obj/ DBEECAB2...pdf.

Teye, V., Sönmez, S., and Sirakaya E. (2002). Resident Attitudes toward Tourism Development. Annals of Tourism Research. 29(3):668-688.

The Nature Conservancy (2004). Ecotourism Development: A Manual for Conservation Planners and Managers, Volume II: The Business of Ecotourism Management and Development. USA: I.S.B.N.

The United Nation (2001). UNDP Manual for the international year of ecotourism: United Nation Environmental Program. Retrieved on 25/07/2011 fromwww.uneptie.org/ tourism/home/html.

Timothy, D. J. (2002). Tourism and community development issues. In R. Sharply & D.J. Telfer (eds), Tourism and Development: Concepts and Issues (pp. 149-164). Channel view Publications.

Tisdell, C. (2003). Economic Aspects of Ecotourism: Wildlife-based Tourism and Its Contribution to Nature” Sri Lankan Journal of Agricultural Economics, 5(1).

Tosun, C. (2006). Expected nature of community participation in tourism development. Tourism Management 27, 493-504.

UNEP and WTO (2005). Making tourism more sustainable: A Guide for Policy Makers. Retrieved on 15/09/2011 from www.world-tourism.org.

Wood, E. M. (2002). Ecotourism: principles, practices & policies for sustainability, United Nations publication. ISBN: 92-807-2064-3.