Classification and Measuring Methodologies to Wake Up the Sleeping Giant of Cultural Industries Sector for Economic, Social and Human Intellectual Development in Ethiopia: Action Oriented Problem Solving Research Approach.

Classification and Measuring Methodologies to Wake Up the Sleeping Giant of Cultural Industries Sector for Economic, Social and Human Intellectual Development in Ethiopia: Action Oriented Problem Solving Research Approach.

Bayleyegn Tasew (PhD).

Abstract

Why Ethiopia needs to wake up its ‘sleeping giant’ of cultural industries? Why now? And how can they get up? Ethiopia is one of the most culturally diverse countries in Africa with high potential values of cultural industries. Cultural industries are increasingly getting high prominence in modern post-industrial knowledge-based economies for development in developed Western world and many developing countries in Asian-Pacific region. Today, cultural industries in those countries are not only thought to account for higher than average growth of any type, job creation and income generation, they are also embodiments of cultural identity that play important roles in fostering cultural diversity. In the last two decades (starting from 1986) radical shifts are made quite different from the old or wrong notions on the symbiotic relationships between culture and development. Since then, development and culture are held as never separable and inter-influencing entities. Today, a number of governments around the world have recognized this fact and started to develop specific policies and strategies to promote them. But, unfortunately, in developing countries, particularly in African continent, the potential of cultural industries have remained untapped where the case in Ethiopian could not be exceptional. Nevertheless, there is a good start in the last decade as many African governments recognize the importance of developing cultural industries in their respective cultural policies. In this regard, the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (FDRE) has aspired to foster and tap the potential values of the cultural industries sector for development in the recently designed Cultural Policy (The Cultural Policy of the FDRE MOCT 2016).

However, the most important strategic measures necessary to create the preconditions for the development of the cultural industries in the country have not been put yet in place. The main objective of the undertaking has been developing constructing a national standard classification framework for cultural industries in Ethiopia and statistical methodologies for measuring their contributions and impacts on the other economic and social sectors. The task was not easy when seen from the perspective of conceptual and operational stances. As stated from the start, the major problems encountered in the process of the accomplishment include the lacks of: (1) Mapping studies on all the aspects of the cultural sector covering the country; (2) Practical definition and operative classification framework and measuring approach or analysis; (3) Organized statistical data-base or data-sets on the potential, size and structure of cultural activities at national level; (4) Moreover, the cultural industries have not yet been identified and registered as integral part of the economy in the National Account System (NAS) coding list. The research questions confronted in the process revolve around the how of handling the problems and what of identifying, scoping, classifying the cultural industries and adapting or modeling relevant statistical measuring methods within Ethiopian context. Crucial was to rely on primary data and secondary sources available in existing literature were mandatory in order to address the problems and research questions.

Definition is a starting point to classification as classification is important for the construction of statistical measuring approaches. Hence, core concepts of classification systems and key measurement concepts are defined based on a critical understanding of the methodological notions, experiences drawn on different classification frameworks and measuring models employed at international, regional and national levels. A description of the critical mass (size) and structure of the cultural activities is given based on data brought from pilot assessment field research covering the country. To this end, the research concludes with successful context-specific action-oriented problem-solving research findings including the following results. A practical definition to the concept of ‘cultural industries’ is proposed to work in Ethiopian context. Twelve core cultural domains, tworelated domains and four cross-cutting (technically, ‘traversal’) domains have been identified, defined and classified. 78 sub-domains are identified and described. Accordingly, two most applicable core methodological approaches are suggested for measuring the contributions and impacts of cultural industries on the economic, social and human development.

1.1 Introduction and General Context

Classification framework and statistical methodologies are so important to provide policy makers and implementers with information they need to develop suitable policy to support cultural industries. Governments need to undertake thorough mapping and statistical research in order to harness the opportunities offered by the cultural industries. The purpose of the undertaking has been developing standard classification framework and standard statistical methods for measuring the contributions of cultural industries in Ethiopia for economic and social development and measuring approaches for organizing cultural industries and statistics. The basic reasons for the undertaking develop largely from the deep awareness and understanding of the pressing needs to establish context specific classification system and standard statistical methods essential for action-oriented and problem solving purposes geared towards to policy-decision, correct management and promotion of cultural industries on sustained basis for economic, social and human development. As such, the frameworks are constructed based on current conceptual foundations, best practices and common understandings of the potential culture has for development geared towards to enable the classification and measurement of a wide range of cultural industries and expressions irrespective of the particular economic and social mode of its production. Through its standard definitions, it will also allow for the production of internationally comparable data. The framework is a result of the ever increasingly growing national interests and emergent policy directions in the main. It builds upon the 1995 FDRE Constitutional principles, policy objectives and basic rights endorsed to all cultures in Ethiopia, the 2016 FDRE Cultural Policy of the MOCT and the 2015/16 -2020 National GTP II goals, objectives, implementation strategies hoped to achieve within the rapidly growing economic development contexts of Ethiopia. Besides, it also took into account the implications of the effects of international conventions on the production and dissemination of cultural products reflections of current practices and intellectual property issues on cultural industries.

As presented, structurally, the paper is arranged consisting of Five Parts, each with several Sections and Sub-sections. The first Part gives a brief background discription to the research project centered on disclosing the existing problems followed by the rationale, objectives and on conceptual and methodological approaches employed in this study. The second Part lays emphasis on the most relevant definitions, basic notions and classification systems considered in literature as best practices at international, regional and national levels that serve as background experiences for the specific purposes of the research in point. The third Part focuses to a large extent on the identification, definition and classification of the cultural industries of Ethiopia. The fourth Part demonstrates the most relevant standard statistical methodological approaches developed at international, regional and national levels and used for measuring the contributions of cultural/creative industries and their impacts on the economic, social and human development. The Part provides benchmarked models for measuring the cultural industries in Ethiopian context. The fifth Part concludes with remarks and key action-oriented findings focused on a context-specific national standard classification framework and statistical measuring approaches with further imports to the development of cultural industries and policy decisions, future actions and mapping researches and studies on the cultural sector.     

1.2 The Problem

There exist critical problems, so wide in scope and deep in nature. They include:

  • Lack of mapping studies done on the potential contributions of cultural industries in Ethiopia for the economic and social sectors. As a result, it makes so difficult to get necessary information such as on the employment size estimates within and outside the cultural industries, non-creative employment within the cultural industries as well as creative employment in non-creative industries.
  • Less awareness on the dynamic importance of and statistical data-base (data-sets) on the scope and structure of the culture sector.
  • Lack of a national standard classification framework for the cultural industries and statistical measuring methods for measuring their economic and social contributions and impacts at the national scale, also relevant at regional and international level.

The cultural activities are not yet prioritized and encoded in the System of National Acount System (SNA) coding list.

If this is seen from the ways how the broad areas of the CIs are considered and registered in the National Standard Account System (NAS) code, the problem is not only the question of inconsistency and discrepancy, but, also of exclusion of the broad categories within the sector. The exclusion of the CIs does not allow to keeping up with consistency which is important to estimate the values related to the real and accurate measure and in allowing comparisons over time; to understand the underlying reasons of linkages between the broad sectors of the CIs and NAS codes, etc.

1.3 Rationale

The rationales for the undertaking lie in the deep awareness and understanding of the urgency of the strategic importance of two complementary factors existing on the ground. The first relates to the intrinsic values of cultural industries for local, regional and national development in all dimensions (i.e., economic, social and human development). The second reflects to the increasingly growing interests and policy issues at national level to develop and to tap the dynamic potentials of cultural industries for the national GDP growth, income generation and employment on sustainable basis. Experiences evidently show that cultural industries:

1. Serve as basis for local development simply because several of them are predominantly made up of small or family businesses that are suitable for locally based development.

2. Give non-stoppable “opportunities for women and youth to participate in productive activities” while, at the same time, contributing to gender equality, self-esteem and social awareness. Cultural industries “help to address the needs of socially disadvantaged groups such as women or indigenous peoples” (UNESCO-UIS 2009:11-12).

3. Cultural industries are basis for innovation, trigger spill-overs in other industries. As integral part of other sectors, they stimulate content such as for ICT applications and have direct impacts on sectors such as tourism. Innovation is increasingly driven by non-technological factors such as creativity, design and new organizational processes or business models by adding value to products, services, processes and market structures.

4. They contribute in developing intellectual capacities, skills, critical thinking and engagement as well. Potentially, cultural industries have the characteristics of being leading sector that can generate for the growth of overall economy. In this regard, lessons drawn on the best practices of different countries from around the world evidently show that cultural industries contribute, for example, in:

  • Improving capacity, productivity, providing wider opportunities for job creations and generating employment and incomes for the broader section of the population in the country: women, men, professionals, highly educated and less learned, youth, disabled, and so on. 
  • Attracting business and investment and spurring creativity and innovation across all the sectors of the economy;
  • Accelerating and ensuring human development, action oriented-knowledge and technological capability.
  • Increasing competitiveness, inflow of foreign currency, generating high growth rate of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) or Gross Value Added (GVA);
  • Reducing poverty, preserving and developing cultural resources and natural environment. 

For this and other reasons, culture has been an essential part of the cycle of economic reproduction. Today, digital technology has drastically changed the mode of production and dissemination of cultural productions in the world. The cultural sector in some developed countries is more economically important than a number of older established industries (e.g. mining and car manufacturing) and it contributes significantly to national export earnings. While the economic impact of the cultural sector in the developing world is, at present, less evident with regard to employment, the role of culture in development is being reconsidered and proposed as a potentially positive influence on growth in the developing world (Barrowclough and Kozul-Wright, 2006: 25; UNESCO-UIS 2009:13). Although there is no doubt about the importance of cultural industries for development, the challenge faced in African developing countries is the how of creating the necessary measures of the pre-conditions for the development of cultural industries.

1.4 Objective

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